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October 18, 2018

Work safety watchdog rejects union's asbestos claims

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“My belief is we have a competent group of removalists at the moment, there have been issues from time to time, but it’s not like there’s some widespread deficiency in the skill set,” Mr McCabe said.

“It won’t be like the pink batts [home insulation rollout] work, because pretty much everyone can do that work, where the drive was to get the money out the door for economic stimulus.

“The stress here is to get the money to owners, not removalists.”

CFMEU ACT branch secretary Dean Hall said it was critical the ACT government scrutinised applicants and spent what was needed to ensure the highest standard of removalist work.

“Everyone in the industry knows that there are some very problematic individuals and companies in the industry,” Mr Hall said.

“If it goes to an aggressive competitive tender process it’s going to serve the cowboys.”

Mr Hall said he was aware of removalists on a number of sites in recent years who had been seen, and in at least one case photographed, in asbestos-related exclusion zones without wearing the correct respiratory gear.

He also raised concerns about the alleged failure of some removalists to decontaminate before eating or having a cigarette.

Mr McCabe said WorkSafe had taken action in relation to a 2012 incident captured in CFMEU photographs, but there were only a small number of cases where removalists were proven to have the done the wrong thing.

He said recently announced restrictions and direct oversight of removalists by WorkSafe would ensure wider scrutiny.

Fyshwick asbestos assessor Peter Hengst said he had found no problems with ACT removalists and did not know of any local “cowboys”.

“Because I’m an assessor I often do inspections for other companies, and I find their standards pretty good,” Mr Hengst said.

Now working for Ozbestos, he began as an asbestos removalist in 1985 and became an assessor in 2007.

He said he welcomed moves to strengthen Worksafe oversight, after now-stark Fluffy memories from his past days as an electrician.

“I remember crawling through roofs thinking this [stuff] is brilliant, it’s not itchy.”

There were 70 Class A asbestos removalist licences this week, the only ACT licence which allows the removal of friable asbestos, including that used as loose-fill insulation, but Mr McCabe said the number of removalists who operated in Canberra was “barely in the double figures”.

He said he would be surprised if there were 20-30 used across the clean-up and demolition of the 1021 Mr Fluffy homes across the next five years.

“We’ll have a very close look at anyone we’re not familiar with,” he said.

Tell us your thoughts: Email: sunday@canberratimes.com.au











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Work safety watchdog rejects union's asbestos claims

Cancer link to two asbestos factories

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Queensland Health’s executive director of the Health Protection Unit, Sophie Dwyer, confirmed the “raw data” from the Queensland Cancer Registry showed 20 people who had contracted mesothelioma lived within a 1.5-kilometre radius from the two plants.

However, the risk from asbestos from Gaythorne’s former asbestos history is now low, according to Ms Dwyer.

She confirmed that “sheets” of old asbestos were being found in a creek leading into Kedron Brook.

However, Ms Dwyer told residents at a public meeting at the Gaythorne RSL on Tuesday night that the risks from asbestos had declined since the plant closed.

“People should be aware that the site has not been used as an asbestos factory for over 20 years, so any general ambient contamination outside buildings is likely to have washed away with subsequent rain and flood events,” Ms Dwyer said.

“The greatest risk would have occurred when the factory was in operation and during close-down and clean-up.”

Ms Dwyer said Queensland Health was more than aware of public concerns in the two areas of Brisbane because there was a “30 to 40-year latency period” for asbestos-related diseases, between exposure and the emergence of mesothelioma.

On Wednesday morning Ms Dwyer said there were many variables that had to be cross-checked before the significance of the cancer disease close to the two asbestos factory sites could be classed as “significant”.

She said that included whether those people who contracted asbestos-related diseases had moved recently to the locations, whether they had worked at the factories, or whether the sufferers were the partner of a person who worked at either of the factories.

That research was part of a four-pronged study now underway into cancer-related diseases at Gaythorne, Mitchelton and Newstead, Ms Dwyer said.

She said the raw data was “important” but it was too early to tell if the asbestos-related disease statistics were “significant”.

Three Queensland Government departments – Environment, Health and Occupational Health and Safety with the Attorney-General’s department – and Brisbane City Council have been drawn into a multi-agency investigation.

Ms Dwyer said teams were doing inspections of dump sites being notified by residents, talking to James Hardie about the operations of the two plants and trying to locate former staff and management of the Wunderlich factory.

“Queensland Health is working with other agencies to determine whether there are any current health risks for residents living in close proximity to the former plant.”

This review will include tests of asbestos that has been found and checks of results found by a private company employed by a Brisbane media outlet.

“An environmental sampling program of the area surrounding the former Wunderlich factory will incorporate recognised testing standards and sampling methods,” Ms Dwyer said.

“If significant, above-background levels of contamination are detected as part of this investigation, then recommendations relating to health protection or mitigation measures to manage ongoing risks to the community will be provided to the appropriate agencies.”

Amanda Richards, general manager of Queensland’s Asbestos-Related Disease Society, on Tuesday said northside residents were now worried after several “dumps” of old asbestos sheeting were found.

“Every day we are getting more phone calls from people who lived in the area or who worked at the factory,” Ms Richards told Fairfax Radio 4BC.











View this article: 

Cancer link to two asbestos factories

Federal government abandons NSW over Mr Fluffy asbestos insulation threat, says Labor

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Federal government abandons NSW over Mr Fluffy asbestos insulation threat, says Labor

Principal told to resign over asbestos

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“Chris has been a hard-working and popular principal of Wales Street Primary for the past seven years,” she wrote.

Ms Nagorcka said the school council had been working with the leadership of the school to address health and safety systems since the asbestos incident.

Mr Sexton refused to comment.

More than 500 people signed a petition to Education Department secretary Richard Bolt on change.org calling for the reinstatement of Mr Sexton.

“He is excellent at his job and is much loved by both the children and parents,” says the petition written by Vivian Hardwick.

“The school community has written hundreds of letters to the department requesting that Mr Sexton be reinstated immediately.”

Thirty-nine preps and their teachers were potentially exposed to the deadly asbestos fibres for a week in February.

An independent report provided to the department in April said it had “significant concerns about the works undertaken by the school and their subsequent response”.

It said an asbestos audit should have been completed before the renovation began, the school’s asbestos register and risk-management plan appeared to be substantially out of date and the classroom was reopened before appropriate clearance had been given.

“In our opinion the school should not have allowed this classroom to be used once potential concerns were raised.”

Parent Michael Sullivan said he was disappointed Mr Sexton would not return.

“There was an expectation that Chris would be back next year – we didn’t think it would come to this,” Mr Sullivan said.

“I do not believe he was solely responsible. Fundamentally the school loses twice. We’ve had the disappointment of the incident occurring in the first place and then the loss of a principal who has done an exceptional job in seven years at the school.

“I don’t see that is in the interest of parents and particularly children.”

Australian Education Union state president Meredith Peace said it would have been a difficult decision for Mr Sexton to resign.

“We have supported him throughout what’s been a pretty long and difficult process and we will continue to support him,” Ms Peace said.

“We remain very concerned that a significant responsibility such as asbestos is left up to school principals to manage. Asbestos is an incredibly dangerous substance and requires significant expertise which our principals don’t have. While they continue to be expected to do this we will continue to get incidents like this occurring.”

Ms Peace questioned what had been done to put in place a long-term plan for the removal of asbestos from school buildings.

Ms Nagorcka said the principal role would be advertised with a view to the person beginning in term one next year.

For more education stories go to www.facebook.com/theageeducation











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Principal told to resign over asbestos

Mr Fluffy homes can be demolished safely, asbestos taskforce head Andrew Kefford says

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“It is possible to demolish a house with loose-fill asbestos safely and without there being a risk to neighbouring property,” he said. “It’s an area of work which is very heavily regulated and at the point where the houses are actually being knocked over, either the lose-fill asbestos has been removed or it has been bonded to the structures so the prospect of the fibres escaping is being controlled.”

He pointed to a demolition of a Fluffy house in Woden in July, where he said asbestos removalists had worked for a fortnight before the building was knocked over to remove the remaining fibres and glue the rest to the structure, so by the time it was knocked over it was safe. Dust-suppression measures would be in place during demolition, along with air monitoring.

“The whole thing is designed so at the point it is actually knocked over, the fibres are controlled and there is active dust suppression and active air monitoring to make sure that it’s working,” he said.

With the Woden home, the internal walls were removed so the remaining fibres could be taken out before demolition, but the taskforce has been considering how to handle double-brick houses, where the load-bearing wall is on the inside, so the outside wall must come off first to clean asbestos from the wall cavities. Mr Kefford confirmed some would have to be “bubble wrapped” – effectively enclosed in a tent – but for others, it would be safe to use technologies such as foam products, glue and water suppression to prevent fibres escaping.

“It is possible to demolish a double-brick house safely and not necessarily by putting it in a bubble,” he said. “It is something we are continuing to explore, but all of the advice we’re getting from the industry is it can be done safely.”

Each house would be assessed separately and have a demolition plan in place.

“If the advice is this house needs a bubble because it’s so bad, then there will be a bubble.”

Asked about an exclusion zone around houses, he said “the bloke standing on site spraying dust suppression might wear a suit”, but “the whole process is designed from beginning to end to prevent fibres from escaping”.

Once the house was down, 10 centimetres of soil would be removed from under the footprint of the house and a little wider, then the soil would be tested. If it showed asbestos fibres, “you keep digging and then you test again”.

“This is a heavily regulated process. At the point that the asbestos assessor is prepared to sign off that the site is clean, they stop digging.”

In the Downer demolition last year, 30 centimetres of soil had been removed. In Woden, testing had been clear after 10 centimetres.

“You need to be in a position to say this block has been remediated, which means we tested, we didn’t find anything, we replaced the dirt to ground level with clean fill and this block is now remediated,” he said.

“We’re getting a lot of questions about this, but the point is it can be done safely. It is a very tightly regulated space and at the end of that process it is possible to say that it’s been done properly and safely.”

The government is considering a buyback and demolition of the 1000 homes.











Credit:  

Mr Fluffy homes can be demolished safely, asbestos taskforce head Andrew Kefford says

'Morally bankrupt': Asbestos victims slam James Hardie

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Under the scheme, scheduled to come into effect from July 1 next year, some proven claims will be paid to victims in instalments rather than as a lump sum, and some other liabilities will be deferred.

Asbestos Diseases Foundation of Australia president Barry Robson was outraged by the proposal which follows Hardie’s decision to pay hundreds of millions of dollars in dividends.

“Victims don’t die by instalments,” he said. “They need lump sum payments to pay medical bills and for carers, and to look after themselves and their families.”

The average mesothelioma victim dies within 155 days of diagnosis.

Mr Robson said it was immoral to cut payments when victims were already out of the workforce.

The AICF said it had approached the NSW Supreme Court regarding the proposed scheme. Approval from the Supreme Court and the NSW Attorney-General is required under the James Hardie Former Subsidiaries Act (2005).

James Hardie has paid $US556 million to its investors over the past two years and the building materials company is spending $US200 million ($221 million) a year over the next three years expanding plant capacity in its core US market.

“It shows you how morally bankrupt the Hardie’s board are when it comes to victims,” Mr Robson said.

“Why can’t they put some money into the fund? It was their product that did it. They manufactured those products knowing that it was dangerous”.

Independent senator Nick Xenophon said it was outrageous to “drip feed” victims and their families.

“It just adds insult to injury. Being paid on the drip is outrageous and adds uncertainty for victims who are dying from exposure to James Hardie’s products,” he said.

Mr Xenophon said he wrote to Prime Minister Tony Abbott and NSW Premier Mike Baird last week, urging them to investigate the funding gap.

“The response [to pay victims in instalments] is so outrageous that it deserves an extraordinary response,” Mr Xenophon said.

“The first step should be for the NSW and federal government to eyeball James Hardie executives and a legislative solution has to be on the table.”

James Hardie paid $120 million into the fund on July 1, which is all the fund had to pay claims as of July 3 after repaying $51.6 million in interest and principal from a previous drawdown on the loan facility.

The company has paid $721.4 million into the AICF since its inception in February 2007.

In the latest annual report, KPMG, the fund’s actuary, raised its base case estimate of claims liabilities by 12.6 per cent to $1.9 billion.

KPMG updates its forecasts based on the number, types and size of claims.

The AICF has paid almost $800 million and settled almost 4000 claims since its formation.

James Hardie said on Monday that any potential funding shortfall was “regrettable” and that it intended to stick to the present arrangement as specified in the 2006 amended final funding agreement.

The company said it was “available for discussions” with the AICF and government “specifically in relation to APS [approved payment scheme]”.

Discussions could take place as soon as this week. Mr Robson said he was trying to put together meetings with the office of Premier Mike Baird.

James Hardie has said it wants to increase its balance sheet gearing to about $US500 million. That figure implies the company wants to return about $US700 million in capital.

CIMB analyst Andrew Scott said that while the circumstances might may demand an APS-style solution, the prospect of delayed payments to claimants was unacceptable.

“We expect further negative publicity as a minimum and increased political pressure as highly likely,” he said. “Beyond that a final resolution is difficult to predict, but may make it more difficult for James Hardie to return excess funds to shareholders.”

Under the terms of the 2010 standby loan facility with the NSW government, the available drawdown is capped at the amount of the potential proceeds of insurance recoveries that may be available to the AICF.

KPMG estimates the present value of available drawings at $214 million. The fund expects to pay $500 million worth of claims over the next three years.

Based on current modelling, the fund said it would be able to pay claims as they fell due if ;the loan facility was increased to $320 million.

“They shouldn’t go to the public purse,” Mr Robson said.

“The loan arrangement is a backstop if the worst comes to worst, like if the US housing market hits rock bottom.

“The message [to James Hardie] is: put some money into the fund,” he said.

James Hardie saysthat the 35 per cent of operating cash flow it pays under the present arrangement is the maximum it can pay to grow and remain competitive.

Mr Robson and Mr Xenophon have said they want James Hardie to remain financially strong to ensure it can keep paying claims.











Continued:

'Morally bankrupt': Asbestos victims slam James Hardie

Health effects of Mr Fluffy asbestos exposure to be studied

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Asbestos was in the air everyone breathed all the time, given its use in so many building materials, he said. Until recently, every time a bus used its brakes a burst of asbestos fibres was released because brake pads had been made of asbestos. Biopsies of lungs suggested asbestos was present in the lungs of most Australians, he said.

While low exposures could cause disease, the risk increased with intensity of exposure or time, he said. Short, sharp exposures such as during home renovations increased risk, as did lower exposures over a long period. When he asked how many people at Sunday’s forum had done home renovations, most put up their hands.

But even with high exposures, most people would not get sick, Dr Pengilley said, pointing out that the vast majority of people in the Western Australia asbestos mining town, Wittenoom, never developed an asbestos-related disease.

Among home renovators exposed to asbestos, five in 100,000 people a year developed mesothelioma after 35 years, he said. Among Wittenoom residents, the annual risk of developing mesothelioma was 26 in 100,000. Mesothelioma is a cancer of the lining of the lungs. Two Mr Fluffy residents have been diagnosed with the disease this year; one recently died.

Asbestosis is another asbestos-caused disease, but Dr Pengilley said he did not expect people living in Mr Fluffy homes to develop the condition, which was marked by scarring on the lungs and breathing problems. He said asbestosis was generally seen in people who had been exposed to a lot of asbestos.

The residents at the forum questioned officials about risks to their health, both physical and psychological, and the potential for the loss of their homes and “everything they’ve worked for”.

Some urged fellow residents to stay calm given the low risk, while others warned against complacency.

The forum heard concerns about the quality of asbestos assessments and the difficulty of notifying tradespeople, family and friends who had been in contaminated homes.

The head of thoracic medicine at Canberra Hospital, Mark Hurwitz, said experts were divided on the value of having a chest X-ray. But in his view it was worthwhile as a baseline with which to compare health problems that occurred down the track.

Chest X-rays were of low-dose radiation – the same as flying to Brisbane – he said. But he stressed they had no value for predicting whether you would get sick later.











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Health effects of Mr Fluffy asbestos exposure to be studied

Trades union forced ACT asbestos removal, not health concerns

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The union also took out an advertisement in The Canberra Times warning “householders, prospective buyers and renovators” about deadly brown asbestos fluff insulation two months later.

In the ultimatum secretary Peter O’Dea claimed the health of workers exposed to the asbestos was not being taken seriously and that the government continued to permit the use of asbestos in the ACT “fully knowing the health implications”.

But the most damning aspect of the inquiry, he said, was that the casualties of exposure to asbestos “through government and departmental negligence” were not to be considered.

“It can do nothing for those who due to having built, worked or lived in buildings with asbestos have developed cancer of the lungs, larynx or stomach and/or breathing disorders,” Mr O’Dea said.

The council was also angry that the Commonwealth, through the National Capital Development Commission, continued to approve the use of asbestos despite its knowledge the substance was dangerous to people’s health.

Mr O’Dea also writes that the working party had no powers to investigate asbestos in non-government buildings and laments that no one is concerned for the safety and care of people living in homes laden with asbestos.

“Who will pick up the tab for its removal? We have been informed that at least 800 such homes have already been identified,” he said.

The cabinet-in-confidence documents show asbestos was removed from the National Library in 1984 because the Hawke government was concerned about the threat of significant industrial action, not the health implications.

The Trades and Labour Council had picketed the library for about three months over the issue in 1983 which caused inconvenience to users and threatened the collection.

The council wanted the asbestos removed but the government’s first investigation showed there was no health threat to workers and no action was taken.

The National Archives papers show the government approved $1.2 million in funding because of the in-principle agreement given to the union to end the picketing of the library.

The union’s list of demands included that the government advertise the dangers of asbestos insulation in private dwellings.

Documents submitted to cabinet request urgent action because of the threat of significant industrial disruption if a decision on expenditure was not made.

“Any delays or repudiation of that agreement now would be seen by the TLC as a breach of faith and it is anticipated that extensive and strong industrial action would be certain,” a submission by ministers, including Territories Minister Tom Uren, said.

The Hawke government was also concerned about the proposal creating a precedent for asbestos removal from other Commonwealth buildings and facilities. Several departments argued strongly for a delay until all buildings in the territory could be assessed.

Expert advice to cabinet from the Commonwealth Institute of Health said there was no significant health risk from the presence of asbestos in the library and removal of it was not supported.

However this was at odds with the independent report compiled by Kevin Purse and Ian Furness of the South Australian Asbestos Advisory Committee that was scathing of the ACT’s “total absence of legislative and ancillary provisions concerning all aspects of asbestos usage, control and removal”.

They said historically the hazards posed by airborne asbestos dust had been known as far back as 1918 but had been largely neglected.

“Despite this, legislative provisions have been totally lacking as in the case of the ACT or not implemented as has been the case in other states,” they said.

“Together with poor management practices this has resulted in workers being subjected to totally unwarranted health hazards.”

Former Hawke government adviser Peter Conway said at the time there had been a realisation asbestos in the territory was going to be an issue.

“I think it was a growing awareness that we had a problem and had to do something about it,” Mr Conway said.

The former chair of the first ACT Asbestos Working Party, Ben Selinger, says the National Library was the first attempt to deal with asbestos in the ACT.

“We had no regulations, no way of dealing with it except for trying to find another jurisdiction whose rules and regs we could just use,” Dr Selinger said.

Dr Selinger, who was a reader in chemistry at the Australian National University, said it was the union that forced the government to take action on the issue.

“They had placards saying One Fibre Kills and so on which were wrong, but they got the public onside, they got things moving and Tommy Uren, who was the minister, said ‘Look, get me out of this hole. I want to see something done’,” he said.

“Like most campaigns if you want to get something done you overstate it and they certainly did that.”

Dr Selinger said he doesn’t know how much was publicly known about asbestos at the time but certainly within scientific and regulatory authorities a “lot was known”.

“Asbestos has been an issue since Roman times,” he said.

“By post war its effects, like smoking, were pretty well established but enthusiasm for doing something about it was pretty low.”

Dr Selinger said the asbestos working party he chaired had been disbanded after a few years and the incoming working party dealt with the issue of loose-fill asbestos in residential properties.

“The Commonwealth was running the ACT, this was a standard material that was authorised to be used, so most people then quite naturally assumed it was fine,” he said.

The removal of asbestos from the National Library paved the way for new asbestos guidelines for the ACT, the first ACT Asbestos Advisory Committee, the ACT Asbestos Branch and the loose-fill insulation removal program.

The ACT Administration wrote to householders in the ACT about the Mr Fluffy loose-fill insulation in 1987 when it believed that up to 8000 houses could have been affected.











Excerpt from:  

Trades union forced ACT asbestos removal, not health concerns

Government rejects union claims of asbestos risks

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The union maintains the partially demolished site is a public health disaster in the making, with broken cement sheeting causing wind gusts to blow the deadly fibres across the city.

Health fears were raised publicly last week when it was revealed the prominent CBD site, in the heart of Brisbane’s business district, was abandoned mid-demolition when the contractor, the Wacol-based P&K Demolitions went broke, owing $3.7 million to creditors.

The director of River City Asbestos Removals, the company contracted by P&K Demolitions to safely remove the cement sheeting, said he had not been able to declare some areas of the site safe, prompting fears thousands of city workers could unwittingly be inhaling the deadly airborne fibres.

Despite the departmental test results, CFMEU Queensland and Northern Territory branch president David Hanna said workplace health and safety officers had neglected their duties in properly supervising the demolition of the 1970s buildings, which they knew contained large amounts of asbestos.

“Everyone has known there has been asbestos there all along and that’s fine, if it’s managed well but it just hasn’t been,” he said.

“The asbestos has to be taken off in full sheets but this has been broken and parts have been pushed off the roof.

“There has been no reticulation system put in place, so there was no way to contain any of the dust that rose and spread.”

Mr Hanna said CFMEU members on site raised concerns about the asbestos removal procedures in early June, six months after the demolition process began.

He said all asbestos needed to be removed in a “soft strip” before demolition work commenced, which he alleged had not been the case.

Mr Hanna said the workplace health and safety officers should move quickly to install a reticulation system to prevent dust blowing off the site, despite its test results returning a negative finding for the fibres.

“It’s no good the department saying it’s not their responsibility, the department is there to protect the public to ensure legislation is adhered to,” he said.

“We think the department should ensure the asbestos is contained and removed in a proper manner and that means a sprinkler system needs to be set up as a precaution straight away.”

The Workplace Health and Safety spokesperson said sealed bags of asbestos remained on site at 300 George Street but that they that posed no public health risk.

“The sealed bags of asbestos still remain on-site, and demolition cannot resume until the bags are collected. It is the responsibility of the site owner to manage the safe removal of these bags,” the spokesperson said.

The developer, the Taiwanese-based Shayher Group, has not been available for comment.

The procurement process to find a new demolitionist is underway.

The CFMEU’s independent testing was undertaken by environmental consultancy Parsons Brinckerhoff. It did not undertake independent air testing at the site.











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Government rejects union claims of asbestos risks

Asbestos sites at Birrigai school campsite covered in topsoil, fenced off

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Mr McNamara, whose mother died of mesithelioma after the family did bathroom renovations involving asbestos, said Birrigai was safe and he would have no problem sending his own children there.

“I know only two well what horrible stuff this and there’s no way that we’d risk anyone’s health out there,” he said. “I’m confident that … it’s safe.”

The asbestos had probably came from the sheds and houses there before the 2003 bushfires, and been exposed by heavy rains. He had become aware of it about October last year.

Earlier, Mr Bray said the asbestos finds were “so extensive that normal remediation work where you dig it up and take it to a disposal site would be prohibitively expensive”.

The asbestos not in the camp buildings. It had even been found in areas well away from the buildings, and it was “hard to know how far it goes”.

The fragments were bonded asbestos cement, which was “generally safe unless drilled, sandpapered, broken or handled”.

“Unless a child was to pick it up and rub in their hands and breathe it or ingest it, it’s very low-risk material,” he said.

The asbestos cement sheeting is not the same as the loose-fill Mr Fluffy asbestos causing distress after being found in Canberra homes.

Canberra Grammar School cancelled a Year 3 camp scheduled for June after news of the asbestos contamination, but other schools are still using Birrigai. Mr Bray said students, staff and parents were being made aware of the risk when they visited.

The remediation work had been finished two weeks ago, and a second official, Stephen Gwilliam, said it was “business as usual”.

An information pack went to visiting schools and other groups outlining the contamination and including a map of the areas where it had been found and induction procedures for visitors, Mr Gwilliam, a school network leader for Tuggeranong, said.

A spokesperson for Education Minister Joy Burch said 40 ACT schools had visited Birrigai this year, with only one cancellation. Schools received a letter advising of the asbestos situation, and “may use this to inform their school communities and families of students”, she said.

The ACT Government’s Tidbinbilla website has a series of risk management plans covering risks at Birrigai, from strangers on site, to natural disasters, lost students, snake bites and wildlife hazards, swooping birds, and even splinters. Asbestos does not appear to feature.

Radford school, though, has identified the asbestos risk, in a management plan that considers the possibility that students would “unknowingly pick up a piece of bonded asbestos containing material and release the fibres through hammering, drilling, abrasion” – a risk it assesses as having a remote likelihood.











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Asbestos sites at Birrigai school campsite covered in topsoil, fenced off